This section summarises the evidence for the association between different comorbidities in adults and hospitalisation for COVID-19, severe illness or death.

Key findings:

  • Comorbidities/risk factors most associated with severe disease are smoking, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, stroke, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer and solid organ transplantation.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and other immunosuppressive conditions are significantly associated with severe disease. There was mixed evidence of any association between steroids, use of immunosuppressant medication, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor (AT1) antagonists and severe COVID-19 disease but very few studies have investigated this.
  • The evidence for chronic liver disease as a risk factor is mixed.

Link to this part of the evidence review here.

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