Other risk factors

This section summarises the evidence for association between characteristics such as age, sex and ethnicity and progressions to severe disease in COVID-19.

Key findings: Characteristics which have been associated with severe disease are older age, male sex, minority ethnic background, and occupation as a health or social care worker. Older age is the strongest predictor. The association with older age, male sex, Indian or Pakistani background remains in the vaccinated population. Less advantaged socioeconomic status is associated with severe disease. This remains true in the vaccinated population.